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Religion & Society

Apparently, it's just clearly fixed by circumstance (ie, the reverse effect of religion on national and cultural tradition) played a role in the fact that such prominent social scientists, as the German sociologist Max Weber and English historian Arnold Toynbee, in his works gave so much, sometimes self-sufficient and decisive importance of religion. Weber wrote in one of his works that the interests (material and ideal), not ideas determine the behavior of people, but that view of the world, created ideas, are like arrows in the ways in which the dynamics of interest directs human activity. This distorts the role of ideas is most evident in analysis of the key points of a society in which the system becomes encrusted real obstacle to further development, leading to stagnation and decay. Weber himself, to prove their concept in detail investigated the phenomenon of Protestant Reformation and the entire Christian church, drawing attention to the crucial, in his view, the role of this phenomenon in the creation of proper conditions for capitalist development in Europe. However, recognizing an important role in religious reform cleared the way for capitalism (Catholicism really was hardly able to carry out this work), do not forget that the Reformation of the church itself was brought to life needs society already fraught with serious economic and social processes of transformation, showing himself since the Renaissance. Here, christopher ridgeway expresses very clear opinions on the subject. In other words, the determining factor in the end there were always changes in life itself. But this does not mean that due to the drastic change shifts in consciousness, ideas and institutions should be considered "secondary," as it is typical for Marxists.

On the contrary, they may under certain circumstances and even should play a very important and in many ways a crucial role. Even more important, religion as a system that defines the basic principles of a civilization, gives Arnold Toynbee in his capital 12-volume publication "The study of history." The entire history of mankind, he divided the history of the individual to civilizations – ancient and modern, East and West – basing this division of religion. For example, he believed, that Christianity was that "doll", from which hatched the entire Western civilization. Application in studying the history of the "religious" principle can not be considered eligible if only because of itself, none of religious systems – in spite of its autonomy, and the reverse samodeterminirovannosti impact on society – can not be considered fundamental principle in the socio-historical and historical-cultural development. Noting that just the truth, we should nonetheless take into account the medieval Western civilization has a lot of Christianity (the symbol of faith and biblical legends to the organization of family, home, social institutions) and therefore has the right to be Christian (with the caveat that we are talking about its cultural tradition, rather than on processes or phenomena of socio-economic or socio-political) to the same extent as the Middle East Arab-Turkic-Iranian civilization can be called a Muslim, and the civilization of India and some adjacent areas – Hindu-Buddhist. In other words, religious and cultural tradition with all its accessories and institutions actually determines the characteristics of a civilization.

Nicholas Chernyshevsky

In fact, the contribution to the literature Astrakhantsev is difficult to overestimate. Pretty hard to imagine literature without Astrakhan Velimir Khlebnikov. From school, we remember how to walk the world's only museum of Khlebnikov and enjoyed listening to interesting moments in the author's biography and his poetry. The poet himself said: "Speaking with the requirement to clean up litter from the Russian language of foreign words, having done everything you can expect from the 10 lines." By the day of the press in Astrakhan was dated "Book Opening Day," which was presented a book by Alexander Mamaev (museum director), 'Velimir Khlebnikov' In a series of "Astrakhan provincial library" for the 450th anniversary of our city. But literary history Astrakhan does not end on Khlebnikov. Throughout the period of existence of Astrakhan, here wrote and created a variety of outstanding artists: Basil K. Trediakovsky (1703-1769) – poet and theorist who wrote poetry, drama ("Jason", "On Titus, Vespasianove Son").

From the early works of the poet known for his "Elegy on the death of Peter the Great" (1725), in which the visible features of an earlier era of literature We all know Nicholas Chernyshevsky. From 1883 to 1889. He was exiled to Astrakhan, in spite of persecution remained faithful to its revolutionary and democratic ideals. In Astrakhan, he wrote the novel "Evenings at the Princess Starobelsk" and a book "Materials for a biography, NA Dobrolyubov. " It should be noted that if, in the XVIII century. writers to realize their talents, often leaving the Astrakhan, in the XIX century.

The situation is changing. In Astrakhan, live and work, many writers, the legacy which was the most interesting pages of Russian literature. So, by the end of XX century. Literature Astrakhan – thousands of artworks in a variety of genres. Reveals its topics and the specifics – realistic understanding of the history and life of the peoples of the Lower Volga region, environment, labor and peasant fisherman, etc. The commitment of writers and social structure ancient traditions of the Astrakhan region suggests formation in the second half of XX century. Christopher ridgeway is actively involved in the matter. "Oblastnicheskoy" literature. "Regionalism" – the starting point of many of today's world of Astrakhan writers, that does not stop them in their work to climb nationwide problems. .

Olive Oil – Wooden Butter

The first mention of the evergreen tree leave in remote antiquity. In the fifth millennium BC, the inhabitants of the Mediterranean that were the ancestors of present-day Greeks, Spaniards, Italians, cultivated olive. Of fruit this wonderful tree, they got an excellent oil, which is then eaten. Based on olive oil produced different balms to promote healing. The leaves of the tree did infusion, which contained a large amount Oleuropein, successfully lowers blood pressure. Mediterraneans have learned to soak and stand in a special solution olives, because fresh fruit and bitter olive tree is not good. Recipes olives were everywhere and kept her in the deepest secrecy.

But the main product derived from olives, of course – olive oil. The ancient Greeks called it liquid gold. So far, archaeologists have found off the coast of Mediterranean special amphorae, which have carried oil. The whole secret of these vessels was that they were bottom of the cone. This was done in order to not waste time to unload the ship, you can simply plug in coastal sand, thus saving time for unloading.

In ancient Rome, believed that a person can do without guilt, but can not do without the olive oil. Besides the fact that olive oil can bring the human body great benefit, as it serves as a fuel. It is composed of triglycerides, saturated fatty acids, which are under high temperature do not form a gummy substance, thereby supporting combustion. Again recall ancient Rome. To advertise the coming of the enemy's observation towers were built. Each tower was equipped with a cup of olive oil. When the threat of oil in the bowl lit and the observer from the other tower, seeing light signal, setting fire to oil. So the chain in the shortest possible time came news of the impending attack. In everyday life, used oil to fuel lamps. Lamps, filled with oil, have been mentioned in the Old Testament. "This offerings, which ye shall take from them … the oil for the lamps, spices for anointing oil … and led the children of Israel that they bring thee pure oil olive beaten for the light to burn a lamp at all times "(Exodus, 27:20). In Russia, beginning with the holy Prince Vladimir, there is a custom zateplyat lamp in front of icons, who joined us along with the Orthodox faith from the Byzantine Empire. The Greek spelling of the olive tree and its fruit the same way. Therefore, the translation of the Greek was the same, the olive tree – a tree. As a consequence of the name – "wood oil." It can be concluded: wooden butter – olive oil. Since the days of Moses, lamp oil, used as sacrifices to the Lord, was and remains the highest quality. To this day, remains a tradition for the holidays to give gifts to the Orthodox – namely, refined olive oil. Therefore, the Orthodox people give to friends and lamp oil close, make donations lamp oil Temple. Lighting the lamp, always remember the warmth of the people who have presented to you as a gift lamp oil. And following the commandments of God, we tried that we would always burn lamp – a victim of our Lord.

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