Urticaria – a disease characterized by the sudden appearance of the skin, rarely on mucous membranes, blisters – edematous, sharply demarcated rash of elements that are very similar to the rash arising from a burn nettles. In the etiology and pathogenesis of urticaria significant role belongs to the neuro-allergic mechanisms, intoxications, gastro-intestinal tract. Often, patients suffering from urticaria, are helminth infestation, giardiasis, foci of focal infection. In some cases the rash is the result of idiosyncrasies of the various foods, medicines. The rash of urticaria is pinkish or pinkish-white in color, subcutaneous fat, forming large units, called angioedema.
In rare cases blisters on the surface may have blisters or bleeding. In some cases, swelling can be expressed as weak that only watch the rash of spots, sometimes in the form of rings. Typically, a rash with hives disappear without a trace, but in some cases, on-site lesions remains pigmentation. There are acute and chronic recurrent urticaria. Acute urticaria occurs suddenly and disappears after a few hours or days. Appearance of rash is often accompanied by malaise, headache, joint pain, etc.
In some cases there is swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (rhinitis, attacks of cough, shortness of breath), the intestines and stomach (quick passing diarrhea, vomiting), as well as the effects of conjunctivitis. Chronic urticaria occurs for a long time (Sometimes years). Eruptions occur periodically and disappear after several hours, appearing again at an uncertain time (often daily or longer intervals). A rare atypical form of chronic urticaria papular urticaria is stable. In this form of the extremities, the face appears swollen dense nodules of yellowish-brown color in size from 2 – 3 mm to 10 mm. The nodules may be several weeks after their Elimination is resistant pigmentation. A variety of urticaria urticarial dermographism is the (artificial urticaria) arising in response to mechanical stimulation of the skin. In this first swollen redness corresponds to the area of the stimulus, and then goes beyond its borders. In children aged 6 months to 6 – 7 years found the so-called baby rash, or strofulyus. This form of the disease is close to scrapie. It characterized by the appearance on the extensor surface of limbs, buttocks, palms and soles of the small, dense knots of juicy pink color on the surface of which there is a bubble or a bloody crust. Eruptions there are flashes and stick 2 – 3 weeks, then disappear, leaving pigmentation. Such attacks of the disease may continue for several years. Further, in some cases the disease goes into atopic dermatitis or scrapie. Treatment – removal of associated diseases, the application of desensitizing (calcium chloride 10 ml 10% sodium thiosulfate solution or 10 ml of 30% solution intravenously, the rate – 10 injections), laxatives, antihistamines drugs (diphenhydramine 0.03 g 3 times a day, suprastin 0.025 h 3 times a day and others for 2 – 3 weeks) nonspecific stimulation therapy (autohaemotherapy, etc.) in the acute outbreak – the injection of adrenaline (1 ml sc solution 1: 1000), pipolfen (IM 1 – 2 ml of 2.5% solution), particularly in refractory cases – corticosteroids by mouth to a doctor. Children dosages of drugs prescribed according to the age of the child.